BCA I Semester Speaking methods Examine Material Notes

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BCA I Semester Talking strategies Examine Materials Notes: Methods to develop efficient work accent phrase stress main stress and secondary stress utilizing right stress patterns observe weak varieties creating voice high quality rhythm in linked speech creating right tone tonic syllable varieties of tones tone group: ( Most Essential Notes for BCA )

TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVE WORD ACCENT

Stress is a vital characteristic of the English language. This characteristic of English wants some clarification. Stress is the diploma of drive with which we pronounce a sound. This diploma of drive is especially pressured from the chest affecting the air-stream. Nonetheless, the listener could understand this diploma of drive as loudness. The stress system of English makes it completely different from Hindi and different Indian languages. In most Indian languages, we place the identical quantity of stress on all Stress is the diploma of components of a phrase. Nonetheless, it isn’t so in English, the place one a part of a phrase could also be a drive with which we pronounce a sound. extra prominently pronounced than the others.

Phrase Stress

made up of 1 or multiple individually pronounced components, that are referred to as syllables. For vor educate consists of 1 such half (syllable), whereas the phrase ‘instructor’ consists of Thus, we outline a syllable as a gaggle of sounds with one vowel sound and one sounds. Many of the phrases that we use could consist of 1, two, or three or multiple consonant sound. Many of the phrases that we use could have syllables. Desk 8.1 lists these syllables.

engineering, mechanical, electronics, electrical, ornament, introduction, odd, synthetic, useful, structure, entrepreneur, chronology, chronometer, leisure, commercial, advertiser, economist, financial system disappointment, completely, accent, vital, unintended, incidental, accompany, accordingly, paperwork, convocation, deficiency, departmental, benevolent, ceremony, certificates, discontinue, experiment alternative, aboriginal, abnormality, communication, accelerator, deliberation, academician, civilization, examination, worldwide, multinational

In phrases of two or extra syllables (actor, actress, singer, physician, fantastic, The three options of a burdened syllable embrace attention-grabbing, punctuality, alternative), one of many syllables stand out from the remainder. loudness, length, The burdened syllable is comparatively loud, lengthy in length, stated clearly and disband completely different pitch and made noticeable by the pitch of the voice. It’s stated to be accepted.

Thus, a burdened syllable has the next three options:

it’s stated extra loudly than the opposite syllable or syllables:

it’s stated on a unique pitch; and

it’s held for an extended time than the opposite syllable or syllables.

Allow us to attempt to perceive this with the assistance of some examples. Within the phrase ‘pupil’, the primary syllable stud is extra distinguished than the second syllable dent’, and thus the primary syllable is accented. On different hand, within the phrase ’embrace’, the second syllable ’embrace’ is extra distinguished than the primary Sylla ‘in’, and thus the second syllable is accented. Within the phrase ‘physics’, the primary syllable ‘PHY is extra distinguished than the second syllable ‘sics’.

Desk 8.3 comprises a number of extra examples of phrase stress.

Major Stress and Secondary Stress

In longer English phrases, there could also be multiple distinguished syllable. In such phrases, one syllable could have the principle robust stress referred to as main stress, whereas the opposite syllable could have weak stress referred to as secondary stress. For instance, within the phrase ‘introduction, the third syllable ‘duc’ is claimed with drive and is held for an extended time, whereas the primary syllable ‘in’ is held for a lesser time and is claimed with rather less drive. Thus, the primary syllable has secondary stress whereas the third syllable has main stress.

Desk 8.4 illustrates the stress system in some lengthy English phrases:

Most dictionaries use the mark /’/ to point out the first stress in a phrase. Discover the best way stress is marked within the following phrases:

Follow

Follow 1: Stress on the First Syllable Communicate the next phrases aloud, stressing the primary label. Communicate the primary syllable loudly, distinctly, clearly, and maintain for an extended time than the opposite syna within the phrase

absence, accident, acid, energetic, precise, truly, grownup, promote, aeroplane, agent, company, alcomm allocate ambulance, historical, anecdote, animal, arbitrary, architect, aristocrat, aspirant, borax, backside, sensible, calcium, calendar, digicam, capital, capsule, captain, seize, carriage, ceremony, chancellor, character, chemical, controversy, distinction, tough, self-discipline, proof, extrovert, manufacturing unit, household, trend, favorite, international, brow, components, frequent, concord, honorary, hostile, husband, illustrate, point out, affect, curiosity, interview, jealous, jewelry, juvenile, laser, lawyer, leaflet, lethargy, residing, native, lubricant, baggage, luxurious, Justice of the Peace, magnet, enlarge, handle, manifest, method, manuscript, margin, market, mechanism, drugs, reminiscence, mercury, message, microphone, microscope, mineral, miniature, minimal, cellular, modem, molecule, second, mountain, a number of, thriller, nationwide, slender, nationalise, pure, vital, negligence, negligible, impartial, neutron, nitrogen, nominal, nourish, nuclear, nucleus, nutrient, nature, obligate, ocean, ombudsman, reverse, optic, optimism, optimise, optimum, odd, organism, orient, decoration, origin, orthodox, oscillate, oxygen, ozone, packet, pageant, palace, panic, paper, parallel, paralyse, paramount, paramour, paraphrase, paragraph, parcel, pardon, parliament, parlour, partial, particle, associate, passage, ardour, passive, sample, patronise, penalty, penetrate, pension, excellent, everlasting, particular person, private, petrol, pharmacy, phosphorous, photocopier, {photograph}, bodily, physics, image, picnic, pilgrim, plagiarise, platform, pleasure, pocket, poison, coverage, polish, well-liked, populate, portion, optimistic, attainable, observe, priority, valuable, excellent, choice, pregnant, president, stress, earlier, main, principal, precept, product, undertaking, profile, revenue, programme, promise, correct, proverb, punctual, puncture, qualify, high quality, amount, quarter, quotable, radical, radiator, rainbow, rampant, ransom, rapture, rational, cause, recognise, reconcile, rectangle, refuge, area, common, related, reverse, rigorous, salient, sanction, scholar, second, seminar, sentiment, severe, session, shoulder, related, singular, sovereign, spectacle, splendour, stadium, commonplace, abstract, summit, supervise, sympathy, telegraph, temperature, rigidity, terminal, territory, journey, treasure, final, ultrasound, vegetable, confirm, car, vibrant, victory, vicious, seen, imaginative and prescient, important, unstable, voluntary, quantity, susceptible, vulgar, warrant, water, weapon, knowledge, lady, surprise, yesterday

Follow 2: Stress on the Second Syllable Communicate the next phrases aloud stressing the second syllable. Communicate the second syllable loudly, distinctly, clearly, and maintain for an extended time than the opposite syllables within the phrase.

consider, soak up, account, obtain, purchase, exercise, deal with, regulate, admire, admit, undertake, commercial, recommendation, advise, affiliate, agree, enable, various, quantity, apologise, arithmetic, assemble, behaviour, cartoon, cashier, catalysis, certificates, chromatic, accumulate, mix, combustion, fee, committee, compartment, complexion, conception, condense, situation, conduction, confess, verify, congratulate, conservative, include, steady, convene, corroborate, curriculum, deceive, decline, deliberate, departure, design, detergent, diffusion, course, uncover, distinguish, distributive, diversify, home, financial system, electrical, electrode, electron, embrace, embarrass, exhaust, exhaustion, discover, specific, extraordinary, excessive, acquainted, fraternity, frustrate, impression, enhance, inform, contain, inside, examine, judicial, machine, magnetic, magnificent, keep, maternal, mechanic, memorial, mentality, mistake, municipal, neglect, negotiate, infamous, November, compulsory, oblige, observe, hinder, event, offense, offend, opinion, opponent, oppose, optician, natural, unique, originate, outrageous, pacific, paralysis, parameter, explicit, notably, peculiar, perfection, persuasive, pervert, phenomenon, phonetic, pictures, photographer, physique, police, well mannered, political, politicise, pollute, potential, practitioner, precaution, want, put together, protect, status, process, proceed, manufacturing, productive, professor, profound, promote, suggest, proposal, present, psychosis, psychology, citation, react, response, reactive, reactivate, actuality, reciprocate, mirror, reflection, reform, refresh, dependable, reliance, relieve, faith, non secular, useful resource, resort, accountable, return, reveal, revert, overview, revoke, revolt, sophisticate, subtle, honest, spectacular, surpass, suspense, suspicion, method, technocracy, telegraphy, thermometer, transact, transaction, transcend, transcribe, switch, transition, translate, transmit, unanimous, unchanging, unconscious, untrue, pointless, unsound, ultimatum, vernacular

Follow 3: Stress on the Third Syllable Communicate the next phrases aloud stressing the third syllable. Communicate the third syllable loudly, distinctly, clearly, and maintain for an extended time than the opposite syllables within the phrase.

aeronautics, affidavit, alcoholic, circulation, introduction, complication, company, counteract, departmental, derivation, designation, differentiate, distribution, electrical energy, electrician, impartial, data, introduce, introduction, intervene, interrupt, interpose, worldwide, intermission, intonation, irresponsible, mathematical, mineralogy, mountaineer, nationality, obligation, oceanography, operation, alternative, opposition, oriental, overhead, abroad, character, personnel, pioneer, inhabitants, productiveness, radiation, recollect, advocate, signify, consultant, state of affairs, memento, telegraphic, territorial, ultrasonic, ultraviolet, vegetarian, volunteer

Follow 4: Stress on the Fourth Syllable Communicate the next phrases aloud stressing the fourth syllable. Communicate the fourth syllable loudly, distinctly, clearly, and maintain for an extended time than the opposite syllables within the phrase. apologetic, attribute, communication, configuration, degeneration, encyclopedia, entrepreneur, negotiation, qualification

WEAK FORMS

Sure quite common phrases, reminiscent of articles, private and relative pronouns, auxiliary verb varieties, prepositions, and conjunctions normally have two pronunciations, that’s, a powerful pronunciation and a weak pronunciation. Weak pronunciation is usually utilized in linked speech whereas robust pronunciation is used when the phrase is burdened or spoken in isolation, and in addition when the phrase comes on the finish of a sentence. Examine the next examples:

DEVELOPING VOICE QUALITY

It have to be clear by now that self-expression and the power to talk fluent English may be improved by making use of applicable pronunciation strategies and efficient phrase accent methods. As well as, a number of paralinguistic options of talking, reminiscent of voice high quality, rhythm, pitch, tone, and so forth should be manipulated to attain the specified fluency and confidence in talking.

Voice High quality

An individual’s voice displays his/her character. A powerful voice does mirror a powerful character. It’s, subsequently, vital that one ought to attempt to enhance the standard of 1’s voice. Though the standard of an individual’s voice relies upon primarily on components which might be past his/her management, it may be improved if honest efforts are made. An individual’s voice is determined by a number of components, which embrace his/her vocal habits shaped since childhood, the construction and bodily situation of his/her voice You possibly can enhance the standard mechanism, the patterns of his/her oral interactions together with its influences on of your voice by analyzing his/her speech habits, and his/her general character. Growing an individual’s voice your voice and endeavor common observe periods would possibly embrace making efficient adjustments in his/her speech habits. to enhance and management As creating the standard of 1’s voice is fascinating to change into assured within the pitch, quantity, and or your voice, you need to first analyze your voice. Then, with common observe, particular options of your voice may be improved.

Analyze Your Voice Analysing one’s voice is step one in bettering voice high quality. One should hear to 1’s voice fastidiously to know the next facets of 1’s voice:

(i) Pitch (highness or lowness of the sounds produced)

(ii) Quantity (loudness of the sounds made)

(iii) High quality (a selected figuring out characteristic of sounds which might be produced)

(iv ) Price of talking (the length of particular person sounds, the size of the phrases, and the length of the pauses between phrases)

A tape recording of an individual’s voice made whereas speaking to somebody, studying one thing aloud, participating in a dialogue, or whereas giving an oral presentation must be listened to fastidiously and critically and the next questions must be answered:

(a) Is the pitch of the voice assorted and versatile? (It’s neither too excessive nor too low.)

(b) Does the voice differ to suit the content material?

(c) Does the voice change with the particular person’s temper?

(d) Does the voice mirror the speaker’s character?

(e) Does the particular person regulate the quantity of his/her voice to go well with his/her studying materials?

(f) is the charge of talking becoming the event? (that’s neither too sluggish nor too quick.)

(g) Does the voice match the subject and the event?

(h) Does the speaker differ the speed of talking in accordance with the necessity of the content material?

(i) What is the general impression of his/her voice?

If these questions are answered truthfully, a reasonably good concept of the standard of the voice being studied may be shaped

Voice Follow As soon as now we have decided the standard of our voice, we have to undertake common observe to enhance the particular options of our voice. We should comply with a scientific routine for observe, and put aside common observe durations. Follow periods must be relaxed. Follow ought to concentrate on bettering one characteristic of our voice at a time. The transition from observe to efficiency must be sluggish and gradual.

Though the standard of our voice is determined by components past our management, we are able to enhance it if honest efforts are made. English speech sounds must be practiced individually and in context. Fantastic distinctions have to be made between lengthy and quick vowels, vowels and diphthongs, and completely different consonant sounds. We should always observe talking lengthy stretches of dialog and focus on the manufacturing of sounds.

In an effort to enhance the pitch of our voice, the observe must be assorted and versatile and monotony must be prevented. The pitch must be managed whether it is too excessive or too low. We could attempt to communicate phrases. phrases and sentences in numerous methods by altering the pitch of our voice. A balanced pitch will make the voice nice, energetic, and clear

We also needs to observe the best way to regulate the quantity of our voice to suit our matter and content material. Discover how a superb public speaker varies his/her voice to suit his/her materials. Hear fastidiously to newsreaders to notice how they differ their voice in accordance with the content material of the information. Studying completely different sorts of fabric must be practiced making changes within the quantity of 1’s voice. A good friend can hearken to the observe readings and provides suggestions. Common observe will allow us to regulate our voice in accordance with the wants of the content material.

We also needs to observe controlling our charge of talking. It’s a basic statement that college students communicate quicker than they need to. Individuals typically mistake fluency for pace of talking. They’re, nevertheless, not the identical factor. Whether or not one ought to communicate quick or sluggish is determined by a number of components, which embrace the kind of viewers, the character of the content material, the event, and so forth. What’s vital to recollect is that the listener should not have any problem in understanding the message. Subsequently, the speaker must be neither too quick nor too sluggish. His/her charge of talking ought to match the content material, the event, and the viewers.

RHYTHM IN CONNECTED SPEECH

In a linked speech in English, one sound is linked carefully to the subsequent in such a means that it’s tough to inform precisely the place one phrase ends and the subsequent begins. This linking of phrases and phrases impacts our pronunciation in multiple means and helps to take care of rhythm in Rhythm is the results of the speech. the common incidence of Rhythm is a vital attribute characteristic of English speech. In an utter of burdened and unstressed syllables as soon as or a sentence in linked speech, some syllables stand out from the remainder and in linked speech are burdened, whereas some syllables stay unstressed. In truth, burdened and unstressed syllables make a sample in linked speech and this sample is named rhythm. Communicate the next sentences aloud to know this characteristic of English speech:

1 Can I aid you?

2. “What can I do for you?

3. I am happy to ‘meet you.

4. I’m glad to ‘meet you.

Within the first sentence above, there’s one burdened syllable and three unstressed syllables, whereas in every of the remaining sentences there are two burdened and 4 unstressed syllables. Thus, it’s evident that in each sentence or utterance there are some syllables that stand out from the remainder and are burdened. Burdened syllables happen at common intervals of time, and it’s this regularity of incidence of burdened syllables that provides English its attribute rhythm. The rhythm in English pronunciation is maintained by announcing the burdened syllables fastidiously whereas the unstressed syllables are crowded collectively between the burdened syllables,

Communicate the next sentences aloud sustaining the stress patterns as marked, and word how unstressed syllables are crowded collectively between the burdened syllables:

1 ‘What is your ‘father?

2., My ‘father is a ‘singer.

3. I desire a glass of ‘water.

4. The ‘pleasure is ‘mine.

5. My sister ‘desires to be a physician.

6. It’s ‘good to ‘see you once more.

7. I’m wondering should you might discover an ‘English instructor for me.

8. Would you ‘thoughts ‘giving me your ‘pocket book for a ‘day?

9. There is somebody ‘ready for you within the ‘lounge.

10. She wish to be a ‘come to a ‘social employee.

DEVELOPING CORRECT TONE

In an effort to be fluent in English, we have to develop the right tone or intonation. A tone refers back to the modulation of the voice expressing a selected feeling or temper. It is a vital characteristic of spoken English and performs an vital function in verbal interplay. The tone of the voice exhibits the angle of the speaker and divulges his intention. It provides implicit data by Tone is the modulation of the voice that signifies the kind of sentence spoken by the speaker.

exhibits the angle, In an effort to use and determine the right tone in spoken English, we must always determine the tonic syllable, perceive various kinds of tones, and divide an utterance into of the speaker. tone teams

Tonic Syllable

A tonic syllable is a syllable on which the pitch change begins. Some individuals name it the nucleus’. Take a look at the next sentences:

“What’s your ‘father?

On this sentence, there’s a excessive static tone on the syllable what’s that’s, the accented syllable is on a degree pitch. Nonetheless, the tone begins falling down on the final burdened syllable ‘fa’, that’s, the voice slides down from the unique pitch, turning into softer and softer till it stops. Thus, ‘fa’ is the tonic syllable or the nucleus. A pitch change begins on the syllable, which we wish to make crucial. Though there are exceptions, the final burdened syllable of a tone group is usually the tonic syllable.

Now contemplate the next examples:

1 She is a ‘painter.

2. What is your drawback?

3. I desire a glass of water.

4. ‘What would you like?

5. “What a “lovely scene.

Kinds of Tones

There are a number of tones. Nonetheless, we are going to focus on three of them, that’s, falling tone, rising tone, and falling-rising tone.

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