bcom 1st year business communication notes in english


bcom 1st year business communication notes in english

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Communication Theory 

bcom 1st year business communication notes

Through communication, communication connects humans to each other. It is often impossible to tie a communication to a boundary, but rather it is met on the basis of certain parameters. The principles, boundaries and environment in which communication is carried out in the common interest, are called communication principles, that is, communication is the communication principle within the limits set for the universal community to protect and establish ideal values ​​in social and cultural environment. 

Principles of communication 

(Theories of Communication)

The following are seven principles of communication in the world

  • Vedic Theory of Communication
  • Conservative Theory of Communication
  • Islamic Theory of Communication
  • Communist Theory of Communication
  • Chinese Theory of Communication
  • Liberal Theory of Communication
  • Christian Theory of Communication 

The meaning and definition of business communication

With birth, the communication or communication process of man starts. In general Balachal language, ‘communication’ refers to the conversation that occurs between any two beings for a specific point, information or information. Any steam transmission occurs. The English synonym for ‘communication’ is derived from the word ‘Comm .. – Latin’ communication ‘which means’ sharing the whole planning of things’.

In the continuously progressive modern business environment in the world, communication is defined as follows

According to Keith Davis, “Communication is the process of understanding between individuals.” 

The ultimate goal of any language is a communication. This * _ ‘sharing’ or ‘communication in an environment to provide information among some scholars and 

According to George R. Terry, “communication involves the exchange of one or more middle facts, thoughts and feelings.” The analysis of the above definitions makes it clear that communication is a process in which harmony between the communicator and the collector is communicated, awareness is the action by which the knowledge, ideas and innovation of the public are created or transformed. . 

Nature of communication 

Many forms of the nature of communication are visible. They can be cited as major points as follows 

Choose the right medium

(Selection of Proper Media)-

It is very important to have some medium for communication. The appropriate medium used for the related message also matches the content of the message. There should be a proper medium for transmitting the message, so that the message can be communicated clearly. 

Related to facts and experiences

The nature of communication is factual and as a transfer of experiences. Fixed is communicated. 

Regular Process

The initiation of communication continues continuously until the interruption of the subject concerned is complete 7 times. Otherwise the purpose of communication 

The finances of art are best presented, which makes the communication effective only by mixing the basic elements of art. 

Innate nature

ISS is different from other human beings due to communication) – After the process of communication starts, the subject matter is not completed. The purpose of his communication will be broken.

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

Developed form of Art

Communication is the basic element of work. Both art and science have true and natural qualities. 

(Nature by birth) communication is an innate nature different from other beings but superior.

Key elements of communication 

(Main Elements of Communication)

Following are the key elements of communication

(1) Communication is wide-ranging due to human thoughts and facts. 

(2) The existence of communication depends on its flow, sequence and sequence of sequences. Under the communication process, the process of taking ideas from birth to the right person through proper means is done so that the informant can use this received information in a favorable and effective manner. 

(3) Under communication, there is the transmission and comprehension of information. This means that effective communication is a two-way process. 

(4) The communication consists of three internal circuits – ascending, descending and palatal, in which there are interconnections and crosses. 

(5) There is a means of communication through which ideas and information are to be conveyed from one person to another, whether it is verbally or in writing, by picture or by physical journey. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

The purpose of communication 

(Objectives of Communication)

The main purpose of communication is to convey the right information to the right person in the right place, in the right place. In short, the main objectives of communication are 

Coordination in Works

The main purpose of communication is to reach the emotions accurately to a certain person. In this, information, orders, facts, advice etc. are sent. For this, it is necessary to coordinate all activities. 

Application of Policies

Implementation is organized in such a way that the purpose of communication is not destroyed. Compilation of numbers is an essential action for quick decision making. Therefore, proper compilation of related information is done. 

Increase in Management Skill –

S4 The aim is to understand human behavior in the right form at the right time. Through communication, learning is achieved. 

Communication of Correct. Mation

Implementing the right information was considered the main purpose of communication. To send the appropriate message to the person 

That its ultimate goal is to deliver the appropriate message. If the content of the communication is received by the recipient, it will be broken. If the determinism is not reached properly, then the basic purpose of communication is to achieve nick through exchange of suggestions between the Khatin officers and employees and move quickly towards the goal. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

The importance of communication 

At present, the use of communication in the commercial sector is increasing and along with the utility, its importance is also increasing in anticipation. In the present times, exchange of information has become an imperative. Through this action, a person exchanges all his feelings and information. Due to the increasing size of organizations, the importance of communication is increasing continuously in the present times. The person who acquires proficiency in the art of communication attains a profitable status in various fields.

Along with the journey of human development, the form and shape of communication has also changed and today its very sophisticated form is available for our use. In fact, the needs of the person have given rise to the demand for communication. The use of ancient information-communication mediums – wood and leaves, language, script, printing press, radio, film, telephone, television, satellite or satellite and mobile travel etc. is the result of unlimited needs related to human communication, in which The climax of Jeejeevisha is also revealed. 

Good or bad communication methods have a profound effect on a person’s business situation. Only the act of communication can make a person touch the higher dimensions and this can also push a person’s reputation towards decadence. . . 

Adequate knowledge of the importance of communication is attained by the following facts –

Development of Effectiveness and Coordination Skill –

Without communication, it is impossible to have unity and functionality. Communication develops cooperation and coordination among individuals. The exchange of information and ideas among themselves enhances the unity and functioning of individuals. 

Necessary for Leadership Qualities

Communication efficiency is a pre-requisite condition of leadership power. It is an effect producing process. A manager skilled in communication is the de facto leader of his employees. In a good communication body, individuals come close to each other and their mutual contradictions are overcome. 

Helpful in planning

An effective communication always helps in the formulation and functioning of the organization’s plan. Communication plays an important role in making a plan operational and achieving the set goals and objectives of the plan. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes

Importance of communication to managers

Today the business environment has changed. The concept of management is also changing, new dimensions are being added to it. Since communication has the ability to convey the thoughts and feelings of an individual or group to other individuals or groups, it is imperative for the manager to provide the appropriate information (such as the current market before a new product arrives in the market) And information about the required capital) and be successful in your objectives. It is also necessary for a manager to conduct his business well by controlling it. The production goals should be communicated to the lower business divisions on priority basis and their results should be communicated to the manager. The quality of a good manager is to create proper and maximum public relations through communication because proper public relations is very much for an enterprise. Actually, It is necessary to create maximum public relations only through communication of all managerial work by one manager. In fact, a manager is accomplished. A manager working in the field of money can have the following five main activities 

1. Encourage and communicate

2. Organize. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

E-commerce refers to 

(Meaning of e-commerce) –

Today the intensity of information revolution is clearly visible in every sphere of society. This is particularly reflected in the administrative machinery and the business world. This technology has interfered with the commercial, commercial and commercial activities of the economy. A new dimension has been given in the form of ‘e-commerce’. 

In e-commerce, ‘e’ means ‘electronic’ and ‘commerce’ means ‘business transaction’. 

The use of ‘e-commerce’ has made business and business activities very efficient with the help of information technology and advanced computer network. ‘E-commerce’ has made an ambitious attempt to displace paper-based mutual commercial methods through computer networks with highly efficient and reliable communication mediums. 

E-commerce methodology  

(Mechanism of e-commerce)

The mainstay of the e-commerce system is ‘electronic data-interchange’, under which the facility of converting and transferring data is available. Under this system, when the customer likes and purchases the goods available on the website, he has to fill a form available on the computer for payment. On this form, he marks his credit card number, the amount due and the name of the recipient. On filling this form, the appropriate amount is transferred from the account of the person / customer to the seller’s account. Under the EDC, a new system has been developed in the present time, in which the purchaser is also able to deduct the check with his digital signature on the computer. This is called ‘net check’. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes

Types of e-commerce 

Due to the rapid spread of e-commerce, its types can be classified into several categories, but according to the intensity of promotion, the following three types have gained more recognition. 

  1. B-to-B (Business to Business),
  2. Consumer to Business
  3. Internal Procurement. 

1. B-to-B (Business to Business) –

‘Business-to-business’ e-commerce is very effective in helping to prepare the proper wattage to execute various activities of the business smoothly and quickly, as well as to cut down on expenses. “Even before the invention of Rennet, such activities were prevalent in the business world” but they lacked the broad dimensions like today. Through the invention of the internet, business entities have achieved high status in the field of technology and performance of business has also improved seamlessly.

Consumer to Business –

This type of e-commerce is able to provide different types of payment methods in the perspective of the website and the software available on them. This type of e-commerce is mainly an extension of tele-shopping, mail-order, telephone order etc. Through this, the consumer communicates his “requirement” to the seller through internet and accordingly the seller takes the following steps of the buyer by taking action. In this entire process, Internet and its related computers have a special role. Thus, it is now becoming the most useful means of buying and selling. 

Internal Procurement –

Most of the companies doing commercial activities by linking their ‘Enterprise Resource Planning’ to the website, the main objective of all these companies is to automate the internal business activities by e-commerce from the boundaries of business establishments. They conduct sales or processing / building / money transactions and other related business on the internet to cut down on their expenses. The most important feature of the Internet is that the key to this immense and precious treasure of information is not captured in the grasp of any one man or company. It can be accessed by everyone who has a computer, a modem and a telephone. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

Benefits of e-commerce

(Advantages of e-commerce)

There are many benefits from e-commerce. There are a wide range of these benefits. Its benefits related to the field of business can be of two types – first, the benefit to the consumers and second, the benefit to the selling organizations. Point-wise these benefits can be placed in the following order

(A) Advantages to consumers 

(1) Facilitation in selection of desired goods and services.

(2) Payment of the bill should be done automatically in favor of the seller.

(3) Comparative study of characteristics and prices of products

(4) Complete liquidation of the mechanism of intermediaries.

(5) Facility to purchase items at any time.

(6) Freedom from frequent traffic in the market for purchase and sale. 

(7) Benefit of information on discounts received in the purchase of any item.

(B) Benefits to Vendors / Companies 

(1) Exchange of business information between producers, distributors and business associates and reduction in business expenses. ..

(2) Ease of reaching new markets and customers. 

(3) Accuracy of data in documents. 

(4) Intensification of business cycle activities.

(5) Reduction in paper consumption.

(4) Information and movement of new products for vendors.

(5) Improvement in the incorporation of new products, goods and services. Almost complete absence of mathematical error due to overall quality.

(6) More time available to the seller for business exchanges. 

‘Future of e-commerce in India’ 

‘E-commerce’ has created an environment for commerce and trade in a new way, in which there is a 100 percent chance of growth. Proper environment and synergy to execute business transactions and business activities efficiently will be necessary for business success. 

Today, India is blessed with most of the features of e-commerce. In order to maintain its smoothness, the Central Government has passed an ‘Information Technology Act’ in 2000 AD. This type of governing act can be passed only in some developed nations. Business related records on e-commerce have also been recognized in the court under the Evidence Act. These records can be presented as evidence in the court. Considering all these points, it can be easily said that in the near future, the field of e-commerce will take more expansion and surely its future in India is safe and bright. 

Biography summary 

(Concept of Resume)

Curriculum Vite (CV) is a very important document, if it is effective then you must be called for interview, and if it is not effective then you will be called for interview without a job. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

 Group Description 

Management institutes are a strong medium for collective discussion to examine communicativeness or communicative testing of students seeking jobs. Realizing the importance of communication between different partners in today’s competitive and competitive era, various management institutes and applicants select qualified applicants by resorting to a written discussion and a collective discussion test besides personal interview. It is therefore clear that in group discussion a conclusion is reached by verbal discussion of a problem or policies. 

Basic Purpose of Group Discussion

(Fundamental Objectives of the Group Discussion) 

Negotiations between Neo can be incorporated into the elements of specific skills and provide a logical form of vatto. This is what 

Having said. This dialogue-skill of human has continued with other humans since time immemorial. 

This skill has touched new dimensions in the era of wa. Friend-friend, guru-disciple, husband-wife. Conversation is a discussion between the owner and the servant. This is a shared deal, the agreement between the audience. The speaker always keeps his words in the same manner as the listener’s mood, interest and desire. The audience starts getting up, clapping, spontaneously pinching, then the speaker is unsuccessful. Only by keeping pace with the listener can the original purpose of exchange of ideas be achieved. From the study point of view, group discussion has the following objectives.

(1) The goal of group discussion is to present ideas / ideals and to get responses in this regard, which leads to further curiosity, which again becomes a means of asking questions and questions. 4

(2) In group discussion, a proper diagnosis of the problem is found by various creative ideas. 

(3) The decision process involves specific types of individuals, so decisions are given by these specific individuals in group discussions. There is clear and constructive language for this type of group discussion.

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

Ethics adopted during group discussion

(Behaviour to be Adopted at the Time of Group Discussion)

Group discussion gives rise to the uniqueness of labor because in it people with expertise in various disciplines contribute through their experiences, ideas, ideals to serve a good purpose. Individuals participating in group discussions have special importance, hence the usefulness of its participating members is indeterminate. Following their definite thinking leads to increase in credibility. In group discussions, the following tasks are often given practical form. 

  1. Task Behavior
  2. Maintenance Behavior,
  3. Self-directed Behavior. 

1. Task Behaviour –

This includes analysis of available information, analysis of knowledge sources, defining problems, formulation of proposals, setting success criteria, defining solutions, acceptance evaluation and summarization for good solutions.

2. Maintenance Behavior

How the participants in the maintenance practice are feeling in this discussion is known. In this, the meeting has to be taxed, who affects whom, who talks to whom, who is part, who and why, support each other’s proposal, security, encouragement, reduce stress and feedback. ). 

3. Self-directed Behavior –

In the course of discussion, the manner of achieving the objectives is discussed in this way, such as wise / counter-productive, protective behavior, disagreement on each other’s proposals, recognition of competition or disapproval of acceptance participation etc.

Essential Conditions of a Successful Group Discussion

(1) The people involved in the group discussion should be aware of the purpose / goal of the discussion and should be able to work with it. 

(2) In group discussion, such an atmosphere should be created that each idea / ideal should be heard and encouraged with favorable and constructive criticisms. 

(3) A group discussion should take place by combining the thoughts / ideals of individuals with different interests and skills. 

It can be said with certainty that a very special place has been set in the field of commercial communication of collective discussion. In view of the growth of any business organization, its utility is increasing day by day. 


The main objective of the seminar is distribution of knowledge and presentation of their ideas among the same knowledgeable members. Usually the speaker expands his knowledge on a specific topic and presents his ideas. Other participating members also debate on the speaker’s statement in addition to expressing their views. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

Modern means of communication 

In the first decade of the twenty-first century, various instruments have been invented as a means of communication. Following are the modern means of communication 

  • Fax,
  • Electronic mail or email,
  • Internet,
  • Cellular phones.

Detailed explanation of major state-of-the-art means of communication is as follows. 

1. Fax or Fasimile

Fax is an important achievement of information technology. It includes graphs, charts, handwritten / printed material from telephone to original location from one place to another. 

Photo is sent as a copy of. By this it is possible to send a maximum amount of typed or written message from one place to another in a few seconds, in other words, the photocopy of the original copy by fax may be immediately available at the other end. 

This system is quick and inexpensive compared to other systems. Its use is very useful and beneficial when the distance between sender and receiver is very high. The fax service is a quick and very inexpensive system. Through this fax service, we can transmit our written / printed documents in photocopy form to the concerned person without any delay. Today fax service has become a major part of daily functioning, it is being used more and more in the fields of health, medicine, business, agriculture, banking, insurance and education etc. 

2. E-Mail

Through this latest and advanced means of communicating information, we can communicate the message to any person from any part of the world sitting at home. Regardless of how far the recipient of the message is from us, our message reaches the person concerned within a few seconds / minutes. Using e-mail also saves paper and time. It also facilitates communication from one place to another. Computer is the medium for communicating e-mail. The contents of the message or letter which has to be sent by e-mail is already prepared by the word processor, then the e-mail address to which the letter is to be sent, Till there it is transmitted through telephone / cable network. All the information of the letter or message is displayed on the computer screen / TV screen of the person concerned. When needed, the message / letter gets stored in the computer’s memory. On the return of the person concerned, a computer-related hour will give information that a letter is waiting for him. 

If two persons are connected to each other through the computer, then the message can be easily transmitted to each other by e-mail.

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

Method of sending email

To send an e-mail to a person, first click ‘Start’ of Windows and ‘Click’ on ‘Programme’. Now you will see clear information about all the programs in the computer. Outlook Express will also be visible in this list. Clicking on ‘Outlook Express’ will start. A ‘New Mail’ box will appear on its screen. Click this. After clicking ‘Click’, it will open a box named ‘New Messages’, you put the e-mail address in the next section next to To. Below ‘To’ is a box with CC. If you want to send your message to more than one person, then write the address of the right people (e-mail) separated by a comma (,). Just below this is a box called ‘Subject’, here Write down the main part of your message. Then a big empty space will be seen nearby, Write your message on this empty space. After writing the complete message, click ‘New Messages’ on the box named ‘Send’ in the upper left corner of the box. If you are connected to the internet through ‘Modem’ 

Your message will be sent without delay, otherwise your message will be stored in a place called ‘Out-Box’ and this message will be sent when you connect to ‘Internet’.

Method of Receiving e-Mail

Receiving e-mail is very easy and easy. If you have ‘Outlook Express’ or any e-mail software installed on your computer, the software will automatically check your mail or message as soon as you connect to the Internet. At the bottom of the “Computer Screen”, if there is a message or post, you will be notified by flashing one message in the “Take Bar”. You can read your e-mail message by ‘Opening’ Outlook Express. 

3. Internet has become an important footprint of modern communication revolution. International communication has been made tangible by connecting computer networks established at remote locations with the help of telephone lines. 

The following parts contribute significantly to the functioning of the Internet.

  • Main information communicator,
  • Telephone and modem,
  • Regional network or large regional network,
  • Satellite communication,

(4) cable network. 

At the present time, a new form of internet has been revealed as ‘NetOn cables’. In this, companies are offering internet on TV in homes by laying a network of optical cavils. To use the internet one has to become a member of the ‘Internet Service Provider’. In the Indian perspective, the Central Government’s institute BSNL is making this work very necessary and is giving practical form. 

Business letter intent 

(Meaning of Business Letter)

The exchange of letters for business purposes is called business correspondence and such letters are called ‘business letters’. In the modern era, business papers have certainly assumed an unavoidable need. Every businessman and entrepreneur needs to exchange business letters in some form and sometimes. Businessmen have to exchange information from different parties to perform their routine work. To inquire, to dispatch orders, to carry out orders, to obtain permission and acceptance of credit, to send details of their accounts to debtors, to complain of deficiency in supply of goods, Communication is required in every institution to solve customer problems and to increase the reputation of the firm. Through proper communication and communication of business letters, a relationship is established with a large population spread in the industry. The natural barrier of geographical distance is overcome only by business letters. 

• The success of modern business depends to a large extent on business correspondence. According to Herbert N. Kason, “A superior letter is like a master-key that unlocks a locked door.” It creates a market and paves the way for the sale of goods and services. Such a letter presents a picture of the firm. ” 

Business paper in its best form proves effective in conveying the underlying purpose of the business to the recipient. The reputation of the establishment reaches people located in remote areas only through this letter. The firm’s reputation is attained by good business letters. In fact, a business letter should be so effective that to the extent possible, it can also replace the writer. 

bcom 1st year business communication notes in hindi

Reasons for writing business letter / requirement 

(Reasons/Need to write a Business Letter)

L. Gartside has given four main reasons for writing business papers, which are as follows 

  • To provide simple and financial means of communication without personal connection.
  • Provide information
  • Providing evidence of practices.
  • Providing records for future reference. 

Benefits of Business Letter / Work

(Advantages/Functions of a Business Letter) –

Writing a business letter has many far-reaching benefits (tasks). 

  1. Record and Reference

In order to keep the communication on record in future, it has to be in writing. Business paper is a good medium for this. Written communication can be easily delivered to the concerned individuals and departments. Its effect is permanent. On the other hand, if oral communication is adopted, its original form cannot be transmitted to each other like written communication. There will be unnecessary waste of time and work will be delayed. Business communication requires not only the current references but also the previous ones, and for this, the exchange of business letters in correspondence presents the beneficial side of the enterprise due to having a written business letter. By having knowledge of past practices, contracts, information about the customers and the vendors made from the vendors, it becomes easy, quick and accurate. ,

2. An Authoritative For Future Reference –

A written letter is a good proof for our future and present. If a person or organization says in relation to a fact that it is not there, then proof can be given by taking out the letter and this is the benefit of business letter. Business papers are also recognized as ‘primary evidence’ in legal strings. 

3. Widening the… Anmroach on wide panes

It is very difficult for any business to send its representatives to every place. This is not possible due to the distance of different places. In such a situation, only the letter is a medium, which can be sent wherever you want. The field of business is also expanded through letters. Due to the accessibility of these letters to the world or the entire world, their usefulness is self-evident. 

4. Business Letters being a Source of Good Relationships –

An important objective of a business letter is to increase friendship with other organizations. Good relationships can be made forever through letters. The main objectives of the correspondence are to build a relationship between the company and the customers, retain the existing customers, create new customers and invite customers to buy more new products. This promotes the reputation of the firm. With their successful planning, many types of benefits can be enjoyed in business areas. . 

5. Making a Lasting Impression –

Letters written in clear and sweet colors have a positive impact on the recipient. This effect is definitely of long-term tendency. To revive any context, the forgotten memory can be revived in a natural way by looking at the old letters. 

Sense of hearing 

(Meaning of Listening)

Hearing is not as simple a verb as it is understood. Most people are incapable of this. They are not careful about listening and thinking, so they are able to remember a little less than what they hear. In the words of Floyd J. James- “Hearing loss is the main source of the origin of problems related to our work at every level.” In muck areas, the importance of hearing is not less than communication in any way, it results in higher dimensions by listening to the process of listening carefully in a systematic manner. . In fact, “hearing is an act of accepting, meditating and interpreting the meaning of words heard by the ears.” 

Types of hearing 

The importance of hearing in the commercial sector has now been established. Depending on the circumstances, its types also vary more or less. Mainly… different types of hearing appear in the following form- .. 

Focus Listening –

In this, the element of concentration is expected to be of maximum importance. Its acceptability is many times more than other types. 

Subjective Listening –

The effect of hearing is also reflected according to the information that is communicated in the eligible person. It is related to the person’s understanding. 

Inter Listening –

When the message is accepted with easy comprehension, then other parallel thoughts keep coming in the brain. This situation helps in understanding the message in its entirety. 

Analytical Listening –

In a person who is critical of critical hearing, critical elements immediately begin to appear. Thus the path of evaluation of specific points is automatically paved. –

तदनुभूतिक श्रवणता (Communicating Listening)-

It has the ability to convey the message to… other people. 

Creative Listening –

It contains thoughts of other people and disintegrated mental intrusions. 

Artificial Listening –

In this, the hearing is very low. By gesture it is revealed that admissibility is 100 percent, but it is the opposite. Here the message is heard, but not received. 

Selective Listening –

In this, which part of hearing is to be heard, the receiver himself determines it and only takes the necessary elements. 

Listening process

Hearing is such an art that even within the range of processes it can be divided into the following processes. 

  • Interpreting
  • Sensing
  • Evaluating.
  • Responding
  • Remembering 

1. Interpreting

If the speaker speaks by analyzing something different, it is necessary to know what is real about the talker. For this we have to pay attention to his unannounced activities. 

2. Sensing –

The message should be written while listening, because noise, weak hearing power, inattention and neglect hinder the receipt of the message. By removing these barriers, we should concentrate on accepting the message. 

3. Evaluating

It means expressing your views regarding the message. To consider what is necessary in the messages given by the speaker. Separating thoughts that are ineffective. All these activities are under evaluation. 

4. Responding –

It involves taking the message given by the speaker and expressing his response to it. 

5. Remembering –

In this, messages are stocked for future reference. It is compulsory to write down the main points given by the speaker or to put it in his brain. 

Effective listening in professional communication

Hearing aids in best decision making of organization and business. Effective hearing is an extraordinary art. It is necessary to understand the benefits and objectives of effective listening. Prabhava hearing has following objectives and benefits 

(1) Good hearing is multidimensional. Proper diagnosis of human suffering is achieved through good and correct hearing.

Related post

Business communication

  1. Introducing Business Communication
  2. Self-development and Communication
  3. Corporate Communication
  4. Principles of Effective Communication
  5. Writing Skills
  6. Report Writing
  7. Oral presentation
  8. Non-Verbs aspects of Communication

Business regulatory Framework

  1. Law of Contract (1872)
  2. Special Contracts
  3. Sale of Goods Act (1930)
  4. Negotiable Instrument Act (1881)
  5. the consumer Protection Act (1986)
  6. Foreign Exchange Manegement Act (2000)

Business Economics

  1. meaning of business economics
  2. Assumptions of the Law of Diminishing Returns
  3. Bcom 1st Year Meaning to Scale
  4. Meaning and Definitions of Elasticity of Demand
  5. Bcom 1st Year Marginal Cost Notes
  6. Bcom 1st Year Modern Theory of Wage Determination
  7. Bcom 1st Year Distinctions between Perfect and Imperfect Competition
  8. Bcom 1st Year Meaning of Monopolistic Competition
  9. Bcom 1st Year Meaning of Imperfect Competition
  10. Bcom 1st Year Meaning and Definitions of Monopoly

Business Environment

  1. Indian Business Environment
  2. Economic Trends
  3. Problems of Growth
  4. Role of Government
  5. The Current five year Plan
  6. International Environment


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